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Properties of concrete with ternary cement blends

Strength development and durability


Binary and ternary cement blends consist of the partial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), also known as cement extenders, in concrete mixes. Increasing use of ternary cement blends (OPC + two extenders) has resulted not only from economical and environmental benefits, but also from technical benefits when compared to binary cement blends (OPC + one extender). The reason for this is attributed to the fact that the addition of one extender may improve one particular aspect of the concrete mix, but jeopardise another, whereas two extenders in a mix can potentially suppress each other’s weaknesses while complementing their beneficial traits. This paper aims to analyse the properties of ternary cement blends, looking more closely at what effect different types of extenders and proportions thereof have on aspects such as concrete strength development and durability (chloride penetration, acid resistance and alkali-silica reaction). Different papers involving previous research on the subject were reviewed and the results compiled in this publication show that certain combinations of extenders were more synergistic than others.

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CPi worldwide journals are trade journals for the concrete and precast concrete industry that are published in 10 different language editions in more than 170 countries. These trade journals, with their practical editorial reporting on research, production and applications, are specifically addressing the decision makers of the concrete and precast concrete industry.

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