At the micro level, a bond creates cohesion between atoms, ions and molecules but at the macro level in composite elements, it creates cohesion between steel, wood, glass, plastic and concrete. Paradoxically, the weakest bond is the commonplace macroscopic bond which is seen every day. The dowel is seated firmly in the concrete. Attempts at improving the anchorage consist of undercutting (wedging) and profiling the dowel. The firmest bond is achieved by increasing the number of connections in the smallest space in the micro- or, better still, nano-range. These are the research aims for innovations with materials.