Precast concrete insulated wall panels have been used for decades as both loadbearing structural systems and as building envelopes. Panels are constructed with an inner and an outer wythe of concrete separated by a core of rigid foam insulation. Thermal efficiency is provided by the insulation and isolated thermal mass, while structural efficiency can be maintained by connecting the layers of concrete through the insulating core. Panels can be designed to behave in either a fully-composite, non-composite, or partially-composite manner, depending on the type and number of connections provided between the concrete wythes. Thinner and lighter panels can be produced as higher degrees of composite action are achieved.