Non-destructive testing of concrete and rock using ultrasonic pulse velocity is a widely established method covered by all of the major standards bodies. The applications include testing for concrete quality by means of uniformity testing, estimating compressive strength, determining the modulus of elasticity and to some extent, crack detection. One major limitation of the test method has always been that access from both sides of the concrete element is necessary to obtain the best results. Depending on the geometry of the structure, this is not always possible. Tunnel linings are probably the best example of this. One solution to this problem can be found in the use of pulse echo technology, which requires access from a single side only.
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