The civil engineering requirements placed on floors for office and administrative buildings have shifted. Flat floors with smooth undersides, large span widths and low dead weight are expected. Activating the concrete cross section thermally has to be possible in order to store heat energy cost-effectively and to assure the provision of comprehensive air-conditioning (heating and cooling) for rooms if needed. The concrete underside must remain free for this purpose. This, in turn, requires appropriate acoustic measures to counteract the reverberant concrete surface. It also has to be possible to integrate other inserted components such as electrical sockets and empty conduits in the cross section, as well as ventilation ducts if necessary.
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